• Mann, Erika

    Biographical details: 9 November 1905 in Munich – 27 August 1969 in Zurich, Switzerland
    Occupation: Actress, writer, journalist
    Exile: 1933 Switzerland, interrupted by numerous travels in Europe, 1936 USA, further travels, especially in Europe
    Erika Mann went into exile in 1933 with her cabaret, Die Pfeffermühle [The Peppermill]. The ensemble toured with literary-political shows across Europe and was very successful. In the USA, Erika Mann became a travelling speaker. The main topic of her talks was Nazi Germany. From 1943, she was a war reporter, e.g. in the Middle East, and also reported in 1945 on the Nuremberg trials.
  • Mann, Golo

    Biographical details: 27 March 1909 in Munich – 7 April 1994 in Leverkusen
    Occupation: Historian, publicist, writer
    Exile: 1933 France, 1936 Czechoslovakia, 1937 Switzerland, 1940 France, 1940 USA
    After his emigration, Golo Mann taught at various universities in France, later in the USA. He wrote for the press and was editor of the exile magazine "Mass und Wert" from 1939. In the USA, he volunteered for the army and in 1944 was sent to Europe where he worked for the German-speaking American radio service. After the war, he also worked as a civil control officer in Germany.
  • Mann, Katia (née Pringsheim)

    Biographical details: 24 July 1883 in Feldafing – 25 April 1980 in Kilchberg, Switzerland
    Exile: 1933 Switzerland, interrupted by travels in Europe and the USA, 1938 USA (1939 trip to Europe)
    In exile, Katia Mann found it a challenge simply to organise her now unsettled everyday life. In addition to numerous lecture tours, on which she always accompanied her husband Thomas Mann, she prepared the family's moves to the next place of refuge. In exile in America, she committed herself to helping intellectuals who were at risk in Europe, and helped many to emigrate.
  • Mann, Klaus

    Biographical details: 18 November, 1906 in Munich – May 21 1949 in Cannes, France
    Occupation: Writer, publicist
    Exile: 1933 France, followed shortly afterwards by the Netherlands, in the coming years a series of locations in Europe, 1938 USA
    Klaus Mann made a major contribution to the field of cultural policy and as a representative e.g. at international congresses. From 1933–1935 he published the exile magazine "Die Sammlung" to provide a forum for exile literature. In his own work he dealt increasingly with contemporary events. He participated in the Allied campaign in Italy as part of the U.S. Army. In 1945, he visited destroyed Germany as a correspondent.
  • Mann, Thomas

    Biographical details: 6 June 1875 in Lübeck – 12 August 1955 in Zurich, Switzerland
    Occupation: Writer
    Exile: 1933 Switzerland, interrupted by travels in Europe and the USA, 1938 USA (1939 trip to Europe)
    Thomas Mann hesitated for a long time before publicly declaring his opposition to Nazism and support for German emigration – becoming its most influential representative in 1936. He supported various relief initiatives and in November 1941 began his "Listen, Germany!" series of anti-Nazi radio broadcasts. He also produced various literary works. Thomas Mann rejected a return to Germany.
  • Marx, Henry (born Heinrich)

    Biographical details: 3 November 1911 in Brussels, Belgium – 22 June 1994 in Frutigen, Switzerland
    Occupation: Journalist, drama expert
    Exile: 1937 via Cuba to USA
    Henry Marx emigrated via Cuba to the USA in 1937. There he was involved in publishing, particularly as a music, theatre and film critic. In June 1937 he joined the editorial team of the German newspaper "New Yorker Staats-Zeitung & Herold". Marx was heavily involved in German-language theatre in New York, including the "Players from Abroad".
  • Meisel, Hans (later James or James Hans Meisel)

    Biographical details: 16 July 1900 in Berlin – 2 March 1991 in Bellevue, USA
    Occupation: Political scientist, writer
    Exile: 1934 presumably Italy, 1936 presumably Austria, 1938 Italy, 1938 USA
    Since he was no longer safe in his place of exile in Austria, Hans Meisel fled in 1938 to the USA. He worked there until 1940 as secretary to Thomas Mann. Later he taught political science at various colleges. He also wrote a number of literary works including a novel about the Spanish Civil War which, however, was only published posthumously.
  • Meyer, Erna (née Pollack)

    Biographical details: 13 February 1890 in Berlin – ? March 1975 in Haifa, Israel
    Occupation: Economist, publicist
    Exile: 1933 Palestine
    In 1933, Erna Meyer was dismissed as editor of the "Neue Hauswirtschaft" magazine. She emigrated to Palestine where she intended to make use of her expertise in home economics and rationalisation of domestic work in building up the country. She worked as a writer, the housekeeping manager of a children's village and as a teacher at a vocational school in Jerusalem.
  • Morgenstern, Soma

    Biographical details: 3 May 1890 in Budzanów, Austria-Hungary (now: Budaniw, Ukraine) – 17 April 1976 in New York, USA
    Occupation: Writer
    Exile: 1938 France, 1941 New York
    Soma Morgenstern fled to Paris after the annexation of Austria. Supported, among others, by his colleague Joseph Roth, he tried to continue writing while in exile. He was interned after the war broke out, but managed to escape to Marseille from a camp in Brittany. After encountering a great deal of bureaucracy, he finally fled via Casablanca and Lisbon to the USA.
  • Münzenberg, Willi

    Biographical details: 14 August 1889 in Erfurt – late June 1940 in Saint-Marcellin, France
    Occupation: Publisher, publicist, politician
    Exile: 1933 in France, interrupted by numerous journeys, particularly to the Soviet Union
    At risk as a Communist functionary, Willi Münzenberg fled into exile. There, he continued his journalistic activity. He set up antifascist journals and publishing houses, including the Éditions du Carrefour. Münzenberg was interned after the Battle of France as an "enemy alien". He died in unexplained circumstances while fleeing to the south of France.