Coun­tries of Ex­ile

The actual experience of exile depended to a great extent on the country of refuge. The geographical location and climate played a role, but so, too, did the political and economic conditions and the cultural environment there. Due to the aggressive expansion of the Nazi sphere of influence from 1938 onwards, many European countries of refuge turned into transit nations from which the exiles had to find a new, safe destination.

25 profiles provide an exemplary overview of places of refuge where exiles were confronted with a wide range of conditions. Refugee numbers only give a poor impression of the significance of a refuge country. They conceal not only a range of different conditions of entry, which in many cases changed over time, but also the fate of those who were forced to flee several times or who were eventually deported and murdered.