1.2 Escape Routes

Appointment letter of Fritz Neumark
Appointment for Fritz Neumark to the University of Istanbul, Geneva, 21 September 1933. // Following his dismissal from the University of Frankfurt, the economist Fritz Neumark was appointed to a chair in Istanbul. Despite the language barrier, he accepted the offer and emigrated with his family to Turkey. 

German Exile Archive 1933–1945 of the German National Library, NL Fritz Neumark, EB 91/155, thanks to Bruce Peabody and the Neumark family

1.2 Escape Routes

The nature of the transition into exile ranged from precipitous flight through to orderly departure. This included journeys on foot but also sea journeys to other continents.

The routes which came into question depended on the time and the point of departure as well as on bureaucratic aspects. Nationality, occupation, age and financial situation were key factors. Many countries began to tighten their conditions of entry, meaning that it was not always possible to move to the country of choice.

The destination, once reached, frequently offered no lasting security. The aggressive expansion of the Nazi sphere of influence from 1938 turned countries such as Austria, Czechoslovakia, and France into dangerous traps. The route for most now lay overseas. Increasingly, illegal escape routes also had to be considered.