7,000–9,000 mostly Jewish refugees.
Republic; dictatorship after the 1933 coup; return to democratic structures from 1938. Economic crisis; unemployment; economic upswing and rising standard of living from 1939. Economic and diplomatic relations with Germany. Neutral at the beginning of the war. February 1945: Declaration of war with Germany.
Conditions of entry:
Visa requirement; restrictive asylum policy. Criminal record certificate and other documents; "landing money". Exclusion of the infirm and disabled. Family reunification was allowed. Consulates issued illegal entry documents, in some cases for cash.
Uruguay was an important place of refuge in Latin America. Especially after 1938, more and more refugees arrived in the country with its European influence. Many arrivals set up their own shops and businesses as a means of earning a living. There were occasional calls for boycotts in the anti-Semitic campaigns of the right-wing press. Overall, however, Uruguayan society took an open-minded view of the emigrants. Launched in 1938 by exiles, the "La Voz del Día" radio programme broadcast in German for one hour daily. It provided not only practical information, but also informed listeners about the events in the country and positioned itself against National Socialism.