Roughly 1,000 mostly Jewish refugees.
From 1923 republic; reforms; modernisation processes. Political neutrality; economic relations with Germany. June 1941: Turkish-German non-aggression pact. August 1944: Severing of relations with Germany under pressure from Allies. February 1945: Declaration of war with Germany
Conditions of entry:
Visa requirement; restrictive immigration policies; scarce entry possibilities for victims of "racial" and political persecution. Work ban. Generous arrangements for academics and professionals. From 1941, a special act allowed Jewish refugees en route to Palestine to enter.
From 1933, Turkey invited specialised professionals, as well as those in academic and artistic positions, to immigrate from Germany. They were to contribute to the economic, cultural and social development of Turkey. Many were given senior positions in ministries or at universities. By the mid-1940s over half of the chairs at the University of Istanbul were occupied by exiles. They imparted their scientific and institutional knowledge and received a specialist salary in return. However, the contractual conditions also required the rapid learning of Turkish. This would enable them to teach and publish in the language within a short space of time. The emigrants were forbidden from engaging in political activity.