Approximately 5,500 mostly Jewish refugees from the German-speaking areas.
Dominion of the British Commonwealth with its own parliament. Domestic conflicts between various population groups, often racially motivated; anti-Semitic tendencies. September 1939: Declaration of war with Germany.
Conditions of entry:
Increasingly strict asylum policy. From 1930 quota for Jewish immigrants from eastern Europe. From 1936 obligatory "landing money". From 1937 emigration largely prevented through restrictive allocation of immigration visas; brief easing after the November pogroms.
South Africa was the main country of refuge in Africa. In most cases, Jewish groups or family members already living in the country facilitated entry. Self-help organisations provided everyday support. The Unabhängige Kulturvereinigung [Independent Cultural Association] founded in 1936 also offered a rich cultural programme. Many refugees were at odds with the racist society they found in South Africa and could not identify with the group of privileged whites – especially since they themselves still faced anti-Semitic prejudice. From 1936, the attitude towards Jewish refugees worsened and the "Stuttgart" passenger ship with 537 victims of persecution on board was nearly prevented from landing. After the outbreak of war, many emigrants volunteered to serve in the South African army.